ASN Report 2022

2.2.1 Basic Nuclear Installations Nuclear activities are highly diverse, covering any activity relating to the preparation or utilisation of radioactive substances or ionising radiation. These activities are subject to the general provisions of the Public Health Code and, depending on their nature and the risks that they involve, to a specific legal system: BNIs are defined in Article L. 593-2 of the Environment Code: 1. Nuclear reactors; 2. Facilities, corresponding to characteristics defined by Decree of the Council of State, for the preparation, enrichment, fabrication, treatment or storage of nuclear fuels, or for the treatment, storage or disposal of radioactive waste; 3. Facilities containing radioactive or fissile substances and meeting characteristics defined by Decree of the Council of State; 4. Particle accelerators meeting characteristics defined by Decree of the Council of State; 5. Deep geological repositories for radioactive waste mentioned in Article L. 542-10-1 of the Environment Code. The installations and facilities are subject to the BNI System, governed by Chapters III and VI of Title IX of Book V of the Environment Code and their implementing texts. The list of Basic Nuclear Installations as at 31 December 2022 figures in the appendix to this report. Prevention of accidental risks and nuclear safety The fundamental internationally adopted principle underpinning the specific organisational system and regulations applicable to nuclear safety is that of the responsibility of the licensee (see chapter 2). The public authorities ensure that this responsibility is fully assumed, in compliance with the regulatory requirements. As regards the prevention of risks for workers, BNI licensees are required to implement all necessary means to protect workers against the hazards of ionising radiation. RADON POTENTIAL ZONES IN METROPOLITAN FRANCE DEFINED BY THE ORDER OF 27 JUNE 2018 Zones with low radon potential Zones with low radon potential but in which specific geological factors can facilitate radon transfer to buildings Zones with significant radon potential Radon potential zones defined according to the radon exhalation fluxes from the ground: Source: IRSN. ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2022 105 • 01 • Nuclear activities: ionising radiation and health and environmental risks 07 08 13 AP 04 10 06 12 14 03 09 05 11 02 01