ASN Report 2022

They must more particularly ensure compliance with the general rules applicable to all workers exposed to ionising radiation (work organisation, accident prevention, medical monitoring of workers, including those of outside contractors, etc.). As regards protection of the population and the environment, the BNI licensee must also take all necessary steps to achieve and maintain an optimum level of protection. More particularly, discharges of liquid and gaseous effluents, whether radioactive or not, are strictly limited (see chapter 3). 2.2.2 Transport of radioactive substances When transporting radioactive substances, the main risks are those of internal or external exposure, of criticality, and risks of a chemical nature. Safe transport of radioactive substances relies on an approach called “Defence in Depth”: ∙ The robustness and the packaging is the first line of defence. The packaging plays an essential role and must withstand the conceivable transport conditions and the effects of accidents that could occur. ∙ The reliability of the transport operations constitutes the second line of defence. ∙ Finally, the third line of defence is the means of response implemented in the event of an incident or accident. 2.2.3 Small-scale nuclear activities Ionising radiation, whether emitted by radionuclides or generated by electrical equipment, is used in many areas, including medicine (radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and Fluoroscopyguided Interventional Practices – FGIPs), biology, research, industry, but also in veterinary applications, the sterilisation of numerous products, and the conservation of foodstuffs. The employer is required to take all necessary measures to protect workers against the hazards of ionising radiation. The facility licensee must also implement the provisions of the Public Health Code for the management of the ionising radiation sources in its possession (radioactive sources in particular) and, where applicable, manage the waste produced and limit discharges of liquid and gaseous effluents. In the case of use for medical purposes, patient protection issues are also taken into account. 2.2.4 Radioactive waste management Like all industrial activities, nuclear activities can generate waste, some of which is radioactive. The three fundamental principles on which strict radioactive waste management is based are the accountability of the waste producer, the traceability of the waste and informing the public. The technical management provisions to be implemented must be tailored to the hazard presented by the radioactive waste. This hazard can be assessed primarily through two parameters: the activity level, which contributes to the toxicity of the waste, and the half-life, the time after which the activity level is halved. Lastly, management of radioactive waste must be determined prior to the creation of any new activities or the modification of existing activities in order to: ∙ ensure the availability of processing channels for the various categories of waste likely to be produced, from the front-end phase (production of waste and its placing in packages) to the back-end phase (storage, transport and disposal); ∙ optimise the waste management routes. 2.2.5 Management of contaminated sites Management of sites contaminated by residual radioactivity resulting either from a past nuclear activity or an activity which generated deposits of natural radionuclides warrants specific radiation protection actions, in particular if rehabilitation is envisaged. Depending on the current or future uses of the site, decontamination objectives must be set. The removal of the waste produced during post-operation clean-out of the premises and removal of the contaminated soil must be managed from the site through to storage or disposal. The management of contaminated objects also follows these same principles. 0.01 Others (discharges from facilities, fallout from atmospheric tests) 0.6 Terrestrial radiation 1.5 Medical 1.5 Radon TOTAL 4.5 mSv/year 0.6 Water and foodstuffs 0.3 Cosmic radiation 0.01 Others (discharges from facilities, fallout from atmospheric tests) 0.6 Terrestrial radiation 1.5 Medical 3.5 Radon TOTAL 6.5 mSv/year 0.6 Water and foodstuffs 0.3 Cosmic radiation DIAGRAM Average exposure taking into account the radon dose coefficient recommended by ICRP publication 137 1B DIAGRAM Average exposure taking into account the radon dose coefficient provided for by the current regulations 1A Source: IRSN, 2021. 106 ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2022 • 01 • Nuclear activities: ionising radiation and health and environmental risks 01