ASN Report 2022

often suffering from serious pathologies and that the computed tomography examinations are important for their care. ∙ Based on a sample of 120,000 children born between 2000 and 2015, IRSN reports that in 2015, 31.3% of the children in the sample were exposed to ionising radiation for diagnostic purposes (up by 2% compared with 2010). The average effective dose is estimated at 0.43 mSv and the median at 0.02 mSv (down for the average but equivalent for the median value). This median value varies greatly according to the age category. For infants of less than one year, it is 0.55 mSv (highest value) and between 6-10 years it is 0.012 mSv. The substantial uncertainties in these studies with regard to the average effective dose values per type of procedure must nevertheless be taken into account, which justifies the need for progress in estimating doses in the next exposure study of the general population. Particular attention must be exercised to check and reduce the doses associated with diagnostic medical imaging, particularly when alternative techniques can be used for a same given indication. Controlling the doses of ionising radiation delivered to persons during a medical examination remains a priority for ASN. The results of this 2nd action plan shall be assessed in early 2023 in collaboration with all the stakeholders, and the plan shall be updated. 3.4 Exposure of non-human species (animal and plant species) The international radiation protection system was created to protect humans against the effects of ionising radiation. Environmental radioactivity is thus assessed with respect to its impact on human beings and, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, it is today considered that the current standards guarantee the protection of other species. Protection of the environment against the radiological risk and more specifically the protection of non-human species, must however be guaranteed independently of the effects on humans. Pointing out that this objective is already incorporated in French legislation, ASN ensures that the impact of ionising radiation on nonhuman species is effectively taken into account in the impact assessments of nuclear facilities and activities. On the basis of the IRSN expert assessment report, the Advisory Committee for Radiation Protection of Worker and the Public (GPRP, formerly GPRADE) issued an opinion in September 2015. Following the recommendations of this opinion, at the end of 2017 ASN set up a pluralistic and multi-disciplinary working group coordinated by IRSN to produce a methodological guide for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on the flora and fauna, based on a graded approach. The draft of the Methodological guide for assessing the radiological risk for the wild flora and fauna – Concepts, fundamentals and implementation with the impact study was submitted to ASN at the end of 2020 and presented to the GPRADE in June 2021. The final version of the guide was published in January 2022 on the ASN website taking into account the recommendations of the GPRADE’s opinion on the operational nature of the methodology. TABLE Number of procedures and associated collective effective dose for each imaging method (rounded values) in France in 2017 IMAGING METHOD PROCEDURES TOTAL COLLECTIVE EFFECTIVE DOSE: 102,198 Sv NUMBER % % Conventional radiology (dentistry excluded) 46,681,000 55.1 11.8 Dental radiology 25,023,000 29.6 0.3 Computed tomography 10,866,000 12.8 74.2 Diagnostic interventional radiology 435,000 0.5 2.4 Nuclear medicine 1,662,000 2 11.3 Total 84,667,000 100.0 100.0 Source: IRSN 2020. 5 ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2022 115 • 01 • Nuclear activities: ionising radiation and health and environmental risks 07 08 13 AP 04 10 06 12 14 03 09 05 11 02 01