ASN Report 2022

Three joint inspections were performed in 2022 on the nuclear power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux and Penly, as well as on the La Hague site, corresponding to 118 inspector.days. The ASN labour inspectors also carried out 450 interventions during the 128 inspection days in the NPPs. 3.1.4 Inspection of radioactive substances transport In 2022, 137 inspector.days were devoted by ASN to on-site inspection of transport activities, corresponding to 92 on-site inspections. Of these, 26% were unannounced. 4 remote inspections were also carried out. 3.1.5 Inspection of small-scale nuclear activities ASN organises its inspection activity so that it is proportionate to the radiological issues involved in the use of ionising radiation and consistent with the actions of the other inspection services. In 2022, 1,392 inspector.days were devoted to on-site inspections of small-scale nuclear activities, corresponding to 799 on-site inspections, 8% of which were unannounced, plus 33 remote inspections. This inspection work was notably distributed among the medical, industrial, veterinary, research or natural radioactivity fields. 3.1.6 Inspection of ASN approved organisations and laboratories ASN carries out a second level of inspection on approved organisations and laboratories. In addition to reviewing the application file and issuing the approval, this comprises surveillance actions such as: ∙ approval audits (initial or renewal audit); ∙ checks to ensure that the organisation and operation of the entity concerned comply with the applicable requirements; ∙ supervisory checks, which are usually unannounced, to ensure that the organisation’s staff work in satisfactory conditions. In 2022, 127 inspector.days were devoted to checking approved organisations and laboratories, corresponding to 55 inspections, 20% of which were unannounced, plus 14 remote inspections. 3.1.7 Checks on exposure to Radon and Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials ASN also checks radiation protection in premises where the exposure of persons to naturally occurring radiation may be reinforced owing to the underlying geological context (radon in PAB and in the workplace). Monitoring exposure to radon Article R. 1333-33 of the Public Health Code states that the activity concentration of radon in PAB is measured either by IRSN, or by organisations approved by ASN. These measurements are to be taken between 15 September of a given year and 30 April of the following year. Article R. 4451-44 of the Labour Code stipulates that, whenever required, the initial checks on the radon activity concentration in areas identified owing to the radon risk must be carried out by accredited organisations. Monitoring natural radioactivity in water intended for human consumption Monitoring the natural radioactivity in water intended for human consumption is the role of the ARS. The methods used for these checks take account of the recommendations issued by ASN and included in the circular from the General Directorate for Health of 13 June 2007. The results of the checks are jointly analysed and utilised by ASN and the services of the Ministry of Health. 3.2 Analysis of the demonstrations provided by the licensee The purpose of the files supplied by the licensee is to demonstrate compliance with the objectives set by the general technical regulations, as well as those that it has set for itself. ASN is required to check the completeness of the data and the quality of the demonstration. The review of these files may lead ASN to accept or to reject the licensee’s proposals, to ask for additional information or studies or to ask for work to be done to bring the relevant items into conformity. 3.2.1 Analysis of the files transmitted by BNI licensees Reviewing the supporting documents produced by the licensees and the technical meetings organised with them are one of the forms of control carried out by ASN. Whenever it considers it necessary, ASN requests an opinion from its technical support organisations, the most important of which is IRSN. The safety review implies cooperation by numerous specialists, as well as efficient coordination, in order to identify the essential points relating to safety and radiation protection. The IRSN assessment is based on in-depth technical discussions with the licensee teams responsible for designing and operating the installations. It is also based on studies and research and development programmes focused on risk prevention and on improving our knowledge of accidents. For certain dossiers, ASN asks the competent Advisory Committee of Experts (GPE) for its opinion. For other matters, IRSN examines the safety analyses and gives its opinion directly to ASN. ASN procedures for requesting the opinion of a technical support organisation and, where required, of an Advisory Committee of Experts, are described in chapter 2. At the design and construction stage, ASN – aided by its technical support organisation – assesses the safety analysis reports describing and justifying the design principles, equipment and system design calculations, utilisation rules and test procedures, and quality organisation provisions implemented by the prime contractor and its suppliers. It also analyses the facility’s environmental impact assessment. ASN regulates and oversees the construction and manufacture of structures and equipment, in particular that of the main primary system and the main secondary systems of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). In accordance with the same principles, it checks the packages intended for the TSR. Once the nuclear facility has been commissioned, following ASN authorisation, all changes to the facility or its operation made by the licensee that could affect security, public health and safety, or the protection of the environment, are reported to ASN or submitted to it for authorisation. Moreover, the licensee must perform periodic safety reviews to update the assessment of the facility, taking into account any changes in techniques and regulations, as well as OEF. The conclusions of these reviews are submitted by the licensee to ASN, which can issue new binding requirements for continued operation. ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2022 153 • 03 • Regulation of nuclear activities and exposure to ionising radiation 01 03 07 08 13 AP 04 10 06 12 14 09 05 11 02