ASN Report 2022

to Articles L. 741‑6, R. 741‑18 et seq. of the Domestic Security Code, “to protect the populations, property and the environment, and to cope with the specific risks associated with the existence of structures and facilities whose perimeter is localised and fixed. The PPI implements the orientations of civil protection policy in terms of mobilisation of resources, information, alert, exercises and training”. These Articles also stipulate the characteristics of the facilities or structures for which the Prefect is required to define a PPI. The PPI specifies the initial actions to be taken to protect the general public, the roles of the various services concerned, the systems for giving the alert, and the human and material resources likely to be engaged in order to protect the general public. The PPI falls within the framework of the Disaster and Emergency Response Organisation (Orsec) which describes the protective measures decided on by the public authorities in large-scale emergencies. Therefore, beyond the application perimeter of the PPI, the département or zone Orsec plan is activated. ASN assists the Prefect, who is responsible for the drafting and approval of the PPI, by analysing the various aspects with its technical support organisation, IRSN, including those concerning the nature and scale of the radiological consequences of an accident. The PPIs currently make it possible to plan the public authorities’ response in the first hours of the accident in order to protect the population living within a 20 km radius around the affected installation. The PPI comprise a “reflex” phase, in which the licensee immediately issues an alert to the populations situated within a radius of from a few hundred metres up to 2 km (for electricity generating reactors). Once alerted by activation of the “PPI” sirens, the populations situated within this radius must take shelter and listen to the media. The PPI are also able to prepare for an “immediate evacuation” response from a distance of a few hundred metres up to 5 km (for electricity generating reactors). Finally, in a radius of up to 20 km around the installations, the PPI provide for measures to restrict consumption in the event of an accident, plus reinforced information of the populations regarding the risks from the installation and the appropriate behaviour to be followed. The additional measures to be taken beyond the zone covered by the PPI are specified, as applicable, through a joint approach which can be based on the Orsec arrangements, taking account of the characteristics of the accident and the weather conditions. c) On-site Emergency Plan As part of the BNI commissioning authorisation procedures, ASN examines and approves the On-site Emergency Plans (PUIs) and their updates (Article R. 593‑31 of the Environment Code). The PUI, prepared by the licensee, is designed to restore the plant to a controlled and stable condition and mitigate the consequences of an event. It defines the organisational actions and the resources to be implemented on the site. It also includes the provisions for rapidly informing the public authorities. The obligations of the licensee relative to the preparation for and management of emergency situations are defined in Title VII of the Order of 7 February 2012 setting the general rules for BNIs. The associated provisions were stipulated in ASN resolution 2017-DC-0592 of 13 June 2017 concerning the obligations of BNI licensees in terms of preparedness for and management of emergency situations and the content of the on-site emergency plan, known as the “emergency” resolution, approved by the Order of 28 August 2017. 1.1.2 Response plans for radioactive substance transport accidents The transport of radioactive substances represents nearly a million packages carried in France every year. The dimensions, weight, radiological activity and corresponding safety implications can vary widely from one package to another. ASN examines and approves the management plans for events linked to the transport of radioactive substances drawn up by the stakeholders for the transport of such substances pursuant to the international regulations for the carriage of dangerous goods. These plans describe the steps to be taken, depending on the nature and scale of the foreseeable hazards, in order to avoid damage or, as necessary, mitigate the effects. The content of these plans is defined in ASN Guide No. 17. To deal with the possibility of a radioactive substances transport accident, each département Prefect must include in their implementation of the PNRANRM a part devoted to this type of accident, the Orsec TMR (Transport of Radioactive Materials) plan. Faced with the diversity of possible types of transport operations, this part of the plan defines the criteria and simple measures enabling the first respondents (Departmental Fire and Emergency Service – SDIS – and law enforcement services in particular) to initiate the first reflex response measures to protect the general public and sound the alert, based on their findings on the site of the accident. 1.1.3 The response to other radiological emergency situations Apart from the incidents or accidents which could affect nuclear installations or radioactive substances transport operations, radiological emergency situations can also occur: ∙ during performance of a nuclear activity for medical, research or industrial purposes; ∙ in the event of intentional or inadvertent dispersal of radioactive substances into the environment; ∙ if radioactive sources are discovered in places where they are not supposed to be. In such cases, intervention is necessary to limit the risk of human exposure to ionising radiation. Together with the Ministries and the parties concerned, ASN therefore drafted Circular DGSNR/ DHOS/DDSC 2005/1390 of 23 December 2005 relative to the principles of intervention in the case of an event that could lead to a radiological emergency, other than situations covered by a contingency plan or an emergency response plan. This Circular supplements the provisions of the Interministerial Directive of 7 April 2005 on the action of the public authorities in the case of an event leading to a radiological emergency situation presented in point 1.3 and defines the methods for the organisation of the State services in these situations. Given the large number of potential originators of an alert and the corresponding alert circuits, all the alerts are centralised in a single location, which then distributes them to all the stakeholders: the centralising body is the fire brigade’s centralised alert processing centre Codis-CTA (Département Operational Fire and Emergency Centre – Alert Processing Centre), that can be reached by calling 18 or 112. The management of accidents of malicious origin occurring outside BNIs is not covered by this Circular, but by the Government’s NRBC (Nuclear, Radiological, Biological and Chemical) plan. ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2022 171 • 04 • Radiological emergency and post-accident situations 01 04 07 08 13 AP 10 06 12 14 03 09 05 11 02