ASN Report 2022

1. Planning ahead Four main principles underpin the protection of the general public against BNI risks: ∙ risk reduction at source, wherein the licensee must take all steps to reduce the risks to a level that is as low as possible in acceptable economic conditions; ∙ the emergency and contingency plans, designed to prevent and mitigate the consequences of an accident; ∙ controlling urban development around BNIs; ∙ informing the general public. 1.1 Looking ahead and planning 1.1.1 The Basic Nuclear Installation emergency and contingency plans The emergency and contingency plans relative to accidents occurring at a BNI define the measures necessary to protect the site personnel, the general public and the environment, and to control the accident. a) Major Nuclear or Radiological Accident National Response Plan ASN took part in drafting the Major Nuclear or Radiological Accident National Response Plan (PNRANRM), which was published by the Government in February 2014. The Plan incorporates the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident and the post-accident doctrine drawn up by the Codirpa in 2012. It specifies the national response to a nuclear accident, the strategy to be applied and the main actions to be taken. It includes the international nature of emergencies and the mutual assistance possibilities in the case of an event. This plan is currently being revised by the General Secretariat for Defence and National Security (SGDSN) and ASN is associated with this revision work. b) Off-site Emergency Plan In the vicinity of the facility, the Off-site Emergency Plan (PPI) is established by the Prefect of the département concerned pursuant Nuclear activities are carried out within a framework which aims to prevent accidents but also to mitigate their consequences. Despite all the precautions taken, an accident can never be completely ruled out and the necessary provisions for managing a radiological emergency situation must be planned for and regularly tested and revised. Radiological emergency situations, resulting from an incident or accident liable to lead to an emission of radioactive substances or to a level of radioactivity potentially jeopardising public health, include: ∙ emergency situations arising on Basic Nuclear Installations (BNIs); ∙ accidents involving the transport of radioactive substances; ∙ emergency situations occurring in the field of small-scale nuclear activities. Emergency situations affecting nuclear activities can also comprise non-radiological risks, such as fire, explosion or the release of toxic substances. These emergency situations are covered by specific material and organisational arrangements, which include the contingency plans and involve both the licensee or party responsible for the activity and the public authorities. The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) is involved in managing these situations, with regard to questions concerning the regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection and, backed more particularly by the expertise of its technical support organisation, the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), it has the following four key duties: ∙ check the steps taken by the licensee and ensure that they are pertinent; ∙ advise the authorities on population protection measures; ∙ take part in the dissemination of information to the population and media; ∙ act as Competent Authority within the framework of the international Conventions on Early Notification and Assistance. In 2005, at the request of the Prime Minister, ASN also set up a Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase (Codirpa) so that, following on from the management of a radiological emergency, preparations can be made for the post-accident phase. This pluralistic committee notably comprises experts, representatives of the State’s services, local elected officials, Local Information Committees (CLIs), associations, etc. In 2022, this committee published its latest recommendations to the Government. These notably aim to incorporate the lessons learned from the accident on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant – NPP (Japan) and from national emergency exercises into the national strategy for post-accident management of the consequences of a nuclear accident. 170 ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2022 • 04 • Radiological emergency and post-accident situations